In “Something is (still) rotten in the kingdom of artificial intelligence,” which was about useful-to-know Achilles’s heels of the current second wave of AI, I mentioned that these Achilles’s heels are all of a single making: the fact that our underlying technology is digital or, more correctly, discrete.

Current neural networks, for instance, are just data-driven rule-based systems in disguise (with hidden rules). In the end, a computer is a Turing machine and the fact that I am programming it differently doesn’t change its fundamental capabilities. And these capabilities have limitations, as the kind of intelligence you want is not logical rule-based and can also not be emulated with logical rule-based approaches.

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