If CO2 emissions do not fall fast enough, then CO2 will have to be removed from the atmosphere to limit global warming. Not only could planting new forests and biomass contribute to this, but new technologies for artificial photosynthesis as well. Physicists have estimated how much surface area such solutions would require. Although artificial photosynthesis could bind CO2 more efficiently than the natural model, huge investments into research are needed to upscale the technology.