Researchers at the Nara Institute of Science and Technology (NAIST) show in mutant plant cells that three polymers, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, are deposited at the secondary cell wall independent of each other. The discovery challenges a long-held consensus that assumed their deposition must occur in order. The discovery is expected to aid in the generation of plants that can acclimatize to extreme weather or increase their production of bioresources.